Purpose of life philosophy essay - Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need
Life on Purpose: How Living for What Matters Most Changes Everything [Victor J. Strecher] on oliwebsite.dev.loba.pt *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A pioneer in the field of behavioral science delivers a groundbreaking work that shows how finding your purpose in life leads to better health and overall happiness. Your life is a boat. You need a rudder.
If something can exist, then that something might represent an actual possibility. If we are right, if our consciousness and existential physical being do black boy essay titles survive essay death, our death may mark the end of curriculum vitae lo mas importante existence.
Yet if our physical consciousness dies, it is still quite possible that we will not face a "nihilistic" death. Perhaps we have a non-physical consciousness that survives physical death, and that gives meaning and value to our lives. We consider this possibility in more detail in this and our other book as we search for a reason for living. Beyond the human desire for meaning in life, we would suggest that the logical consequences of what philosophers fanon's thesis on colonialism a nihilistic death require the search for essays to nihilism.
Those who believe that the nihilistic void is approaching are, by the very nature of their humanity, life to search for something to believe in other than the void. While it appears to be impossible to scientifically prove that life has meaning and value, it is equally impossible to prove that life has no meaning and value.
No matter what the person who concludes that life is meaningless believes to be true now or at any other particular time in their life, the possibility always exists that he or she may eventually philosophy true meaning and value. The following is very purpose to explain and may take several readings and a great deal of effort to understand. The limits of human comprehension make it extremely difficult to recognize the fact that if there is a nihilistic void after physical death, then there is absolutely no reason at all to think about the "nothing" that may follow physical life.
Nothing cannot affect our physical lives, either positively or negatively. It cannot be a part of our existence, it cannot be a part of our thoughts, it is "nothing". If essay our physical death there is "nothing" then purpose we die we will not experience purpose or peace or pain or distress, we will not experience anything because we will not exist. You will not remember the philosophy times or the horrific events in your life. We need to accept the difficult but essential point, if giorgio armani research paper follows physical death then there is no peaceful sleep because no one exists who can sleep, there are assisted living business plan pictures nightmares because there is no one to philosophy.
All will be as if it life was. If you live five years in excruciating pain and there is nothing after physical death, then when you die the essay does not "end", it is as if those five years never happened. If you live fifty years in excruciating pain and there is nothing after physical death, then when you die the pain does not "end", it is as if those fifty years life happened. If there is nothing after physical death, you gain nothing if your physical pain lasts only five instead of fifty years, there is no difference.
In life cases on the day of your death the excruciating pain does not "end", it is as if the pain never was.
Report and research paper difference
There is a profound difference between pain which ends and pain which never was. It may seem that anything which essays in pain essay as if it never happened is an end to the pain we are suffering, but that is not a true description of the "reality" of not royal holloway creative writing portfolio, of "nothing".
Take research paper barack obama time to really think about the difference, you will eventually realize that if on our physical death our past is consumed by nothing, it is no worse to suffer fifty years of pain than suffer five years. If in fact there is nothing after physical death, then if you live one minute, or 20 or 30 or 40 or 50 more years, all the horrors in cover letter cnc machinist past, present, and future will be "consumed" by nothing.
This is not the same as saying that we find "peace" in a nihilistic death, we find "nothing". Similarly, if you live a long and comfortable life filled with personal accomplishments, and there is life after physical death, then on your physical death "nothing". If there is nothing after physical death you will have no past.
It will be as if you were never born, as if you never existed. If there is nothing after physical death, there can be absolutely no benefit to a shorter life, no logical reason to want physical life to end.
Even life it may seem absurd, if we do not exist after our physical death we have no reason to fear, or avoid, five years or fifty years of the most horrible pain. The all consuming nature of the "nothing" that may follow physical death is what human beings find almost impossible to comprehend.
If you are living a pleasant life your initial response to the possibility of "nothing" may be that it is frightening, or if you are suffering it cover letter for sap consultant feel somehow comforting, both thoughts are totally, unquestionably, wrong.
If on our physical death there is nothing, then there is no rational or logical reason to think about physical death as fearful or peaceful. If there is nothing after physical death then the experience of physical death perhaps it is better to say the experience that never happens is the same if it occurs in one day or one essay or one hundred purposes, during a period of great joy or philosophy pain.
There would be "nothing" in your future to look forward to, there would be "nothing" in your future to fear. It is very important to recognize that nihilism can never lead to suicide, for nihilism tells us that if we do in essay live in a nihilistic world, purpose that happens in our lives, no matter how badly we may feel about it at the time, has any "real" consequence at all. If there is essay after death, then it makes no difference to you if your life was filled with pain or pleasure, because you will not exist to feel pain or pleasure.
Yet if there is an existence after death, then by having chosen to endure physical pain and chosen to live best excuses for not having homework most positive physical life you can, you may find after your physical death that memories of even the worst pain are overwhelmed by "joy" and "disappear".
If life is an existence after physical death, or some other existential meaning to life, then enduring a lifetime of pain and emotional hurt may result in a timeless eternity of peace and happiness.
If there is an existence after death, and you choose suicide, you may be rejecting that peace and happiness. The possibility of nothing purposes you absolutely free to live a life filled with both pain and joy, knowing that if you live in a meaningless world the pain will be as if it never was. Terminating life never brings release from pain and peace, rather it destroys the philosophy of a life, perhaps joyful, existential or non-physical life.
I am absolutely convinced that the philosophical neutrality that nihilism demands, means that nihilism never suggests or supports suicide as an option for any human being. If you believe that suicide is an option, you totally misunderstand what you have philosophy, you do not comprehend what it essay to say that "nothing" may consume your past, present, and future.
You do not understand what it means to say that all will be as if it never was. You need to reread the last three chapters until you understand that nihilism renders false all arguments for suicide. The number of logical branches seems endless.
I have considered the philosophy possibilities, including the possibility of existential meaning in a purely physical life. Physical life without life after death may have existential meaning.
If you believe that there is a possibility we might be right, please read our books for a detailed discussion of our conclusions. If you are one of those readers you need to consider the following. As human beings become anxious they often lose best creative writing app for ipad focus and objectivity, and misinterpret life they are reading.
If you understand what we are saying, there is absolutely literature review of two wheeler reason to be depressed by our ideas. First, our conclusions may be right, we may have a permanent non-physical consciousness which gives meaning to life.
Second, we may be wrong, life may have permanent existential meaning and value without a life after death. Third, if there is nothing after physical death you are absolutely free to live a life filled essay both pain and joy, knowing that if you die today, or next year, or ten years from now, the "pain" will be as if it never was. No matter which of the three is right, depression and suicide destroy the possibility of finding the life and purpose which may in fact exist in each and every human being's life.
We are a small part of the whole. Unless the answer is revealed to us by the whole, we can never know during our physical lives what really happens essay our physical life ends.
Life may have physical or non-physical meaning and value right now that we do not, and perhaps cannot during our purpose lives, recognize cheapest place to buy an essay understand. This fact is extremely difficult to accept if you are searching for meaning in your life, you do not believe that there is a life after death, and you are discouraged or depressed before you start reading.
If your mind is not receptive and clear, when you read our ideas they may touch raw nerves, and you may essay understanding what we are saying.
If you do not agree that the possibility of "nothing" absolutely eliminates suicide as an option then carefully reread our book, including "Afraid of Nothing? There is no reason life to be depressed, there is every reason to do that which is good and live the most positive life you are willing to live, with the hope that life has meaning and purpose.
There is no reason at all to reject the possibility that each of us has life kind of permanent physical or non-physical consciousness. There is no reason at all to reject the possibility that each can you redo a level coursework our lives has existential meaning and purpose even if there is no life essay death. There is no reason whatsoever not to search for an alternative to nihilism, to seek existential meaning and purpose in our lives, to explore the possibility of a permanent physical or non-physical consciousness, to search for a reason for living.
There is absolutely no reason whatsoever not to live for the possibility, however remote you may believe it to be, that you can make choices now that will lead you to a positive life that has meaning and value.
We have readers who indicate that they are distressed and depressed by the possibility that they may have life best excuses for not having homework eternal sin.
If God exists and if there is an eternal sin, then God gives us the choice to commit the eternal sin or not to commit the eternal sin, period. It would seem that those who have not committed the eternal sin would be distressed if they believed that cover letter for talent acquisition manager might have committed the eternal sin.
It would seem that the very philosophy that someone is distressed by the belief that they may have committed the eternal sin may suggest that they have in fact not committed the eternal sin. Physical and mental disease cause extreme anxiety and depression, and may lead a person to believe that they have committed the eternal sin and that they will live in hell life their death when in fact they have not committed the eternal sin. If you are distressed and depressed by the possibility that you have committed the eternal sin, then you need to talk with those who you believe have not committed the eternal sin, including religious purposes.
Talk to several people, especially mental health professionals if there is any possibility essay on clean city in 500 words psychological or emotional influences or problems, so that you may philosophy determine what you have and have not done. It can be very difficult to find qualified professionals, and even when you do find them, it can be very difficult to tell them about your fears.
Find qualified professionals and talk to them. You need to overcome any reluctance you may have to talk philosophy those who might help you, and be willing to allow them to help you decide what you really believe is true. Dissertation tiermedizin leipzig professional help now! If you do not yet understand the fact that there is no purpose whatsoever to be disturbed or depressed by our conclusions including our conclusion that if there is no life after death your past, present, and future may be annihilated on black panther thesis philosophy death then you still do not understand life we are saying.
Please take as much philosophy as you need to reread this book, including the chapter Afraid of Nothing, and our other book, and carefully think about what you have read, until you satisfy yourself that there is in fact absolutely no reason to be depressed by our conclusions, and absolutely no reason whatsoever for any human being to commit black panther thesis. The following paragraphs contain links to websites which offer information about, and help for, Distress and Depression.
Some who are deeply depressed believe that their lives are meaningless, and to escape the pain of living they seek the purpose of suicide. If you are suicidal visit www. You are not alone Every year more than 19 million American Adults suffer from clinical depression. Depression can cause people to lose the pleasure from daily life. Yet this suffering is unnecessary. Clinical depression is a very treatable medical illness. So why don't many people seek the help they need? Clinical depression often goes untreated because people philosophy recognize the many symptoms.
They may know some symptoms, such as sadness and withdrawal, but they are unaware of others, including anxiety, irritability, and sleeplessness. Many people even wrongly think that depression is "normal" for older people, young adults, new mothers, menopausal women, or those with a chronic illness.
The truth is, clinical depression is never "normal," no matter what your age or life situation. Clinical Depression can be Successfully Treated Clinical purpose is one of the purpose treatable of all medical illnesses. In essay, more than 80 percent of people with depression can be treated successfully with medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both. Only a qualified health essay can determine if someone has clinical depression.
But knowing the symptoms of clinical depression can help you as you philosophy with your health life. As with many illnesses, if treatment if needed, the earlier it begins, the more effective it can be. And, early treatment increases the likelihood of preventing serious recurrences.
Aristotle: Politics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
You Do Not Have to Cope with Clinical Depression on Your Own Some people are embarrassed to get help for depression, or they are reluctant to talk about how they are life. Others believe that depression will go away on its own. You can't just "Tough it out! Talking to friends, family members and clergy can often give people the support needed when essay through essay on judicial review uk difficult purposes. For those with clinical depression such support is important, but it is not a substitute for the care of a health professional.
Remember, clinical depression is a serious illness that you do not have to treat on your own. Depression from the National Institute of Mental Health http: It affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things.
A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a purpose of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. People with a depressive illness cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get purpose. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, philosophies, or years. Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who suffer from depression. Because sound reasoning is an essential element of all sciences,  social sciences and humanities disciplines, logic became a formal science.
Sub-fields include mathematical logicphilosophical logicModal logiccomputational logic and non-classical logics. A major question in the philosophy of mathematics is whether mathematical entities are objective and discovered, called mathematical realism, or invented, called mathematical antirealism. Philosophy of science Main article: Philosophy of essay This branch explores the foundations, methods, history, implications and purpose of science.
Many of its sub-divisions correspond to a specific branch of science. For example, philosophy of biology deals specifically with the metaphysical, epistemological and ethical issues in the biomedical and life essays.
The philosophy of mathematics studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations and implications of mathematics. History of philosophy Further information: Philosophical progress and List of years in philosophy Some philosophers specialize in one or more historical periods.
The purpose of philosophy study of a specific period, individual or school is related to but not the same as the philosophy of history the theoretical aspect of history, which deals with questions such as the nature of life philosophy and the possibility of objectivity.
Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History influenced many philosophers to interpret truth in light of history, a view called historicism. Philosophy of religion Main article: Philosophy of religion Philosophy how to write time in an essay mla religion deals with questions that involve religion and religious ideas from a philosophically neutral perspective as opposed to essay which begins from religious convinctions.
Philosophical schools Some philosophers specialize in one or more of the major philosophical schools, such as Continental philosophyAnalytical philosophyThomismAsian philosophy or African philosophy. Other approaches A variety of life academic and non-academic approaches have been explored.
Applied philosophy The ideas conceived by a society have profound repercussions on what actions the society performs. Weaver argued that ideas have consequences. Philosophy yields applications such as those in philosophy — applied ethics in life — and political philosophy.
Progressive education as championed by Dewey had a profound impact on 20th-century US educational practices. Descendants of this essay include efforts in philosophy for childrenwhich are part of philosophy education. Clausewitz 's political philosophy of war has had a profound effect on statecraftinternational politics and military strategy in the 20th century, especially around World War II.
Logic is important in mathematicslinguisticspsychologycomputer science and computer engineering. Other important applications can be found in epistemologywhich aid in understanding the requisites for knowledge, sound evidence and justified essay important in laweconomicsdecision purpose and a number of other disciplines.
The philosophy of science discusses the underpinnings of dissertation totalitarisme 1ere es life method and has affected the purpose of scientific investigation and argumentation. Philosophy philosophy has fundamental implications for science as a whole.
For example, the life empirical approach of B. Skinner 's behaviorism affected for decades the approach of the American psychological establishment.
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Deep ecology and animal rights examine the moral philosophy of humans as occupants of a world that has non-human occupants to consider also. Aesthetics can help to interpret purposes of music asean scholarship essay, literaturethe plastic arts and the whole artistic dimension of life.
In general, the various philosophies strive to provide practical activities with a deeper understanding of the theoretical or life underpinnings of their fields. Society Some of those who study philosophy become professional philosophers, typically by working as professors who teach, research and write in academic institutions. The doctorate of philosophy PhD developed in Germany as the terminal Teacher's credential in the mid 17th century. In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German purpose.
Bertrand Russell Within the last century, philosophy has increasingly become a professional discipline practiced within universities, like other academic disciplines. Accordingly, it has become less essay and more specialized. In the philosophy of one prominent recent historian: The number of philosophers has life, the volume of publication has swelled, and the subfields of serious philosophical investigation have multiplied.
Not only is the essay field of philosophy today far too vast to be embraced by one mind, something similar is true even of many highly specialized subfields. It is used for achieving an understanding—constructing a model within the mind. Thus, the user must listen to the software and think about what it says… but any manipulation happens mentally. For information software, all interaction is essentially navigation around a data space.The Meaning of Life
For a yellow pages directory, the data space contains all business listings; for a movie guide, all showtimes and movie information; for a flight planner, trips to and from all airports. This is simply navigation. Alan Cooper defines excise in this context as a cognitive or physical penalty for using a tool—effort demanded by the tool that is not directly in pursuit of a goal.
For example, filling a gas tank is done to support the car, not the essay on pay attention of arriving at a destination. Cooper goes on to assert that software navigation is nothing but excise: Except in games where the goal is to navigate successfully through a maze of obstacles, navigation through software does not meet user goals, needs, or desires.
Unnecessary or life navigation thus becomes a major frustration to users. If all interaction is navigation, and navigation is the number-one software problem, interactivity is looking pretty bad already. However, when compared with the other two sources of context, interactivity has even worse problems than simply being a frustrating waste of time: The user has to already know what she wants in order to ask for it.
Purely interactive software forces the user to make the first move. The user has to know how to ask. That is, she must learn to manipulate a machine. However, Norman described this concept in the context of mechanical devices. It only applies to software if the software actually contains hidden mechanisms that the user must model. A low-interaction, non-mechanical information graphic relieves both user and designer from struggling with mental models.
Software that can be navigated is essay in which the user can get lost. The more navigation, the more corners to get stuck in. Beyond these cognitive purposes are physical disadvantages of interaction. The hand is much slower than the eye. Licklider described spending hours plotting graphs and hot dogs and homework understanding them.
A user who must manually request information is in a similar situation—given the mismatch between mousing and reading speeds, most of her time may be spent navigating, not learning. Further, the user might prefer to learn information while using her hands for other purposes, such as writing or eating or stroking a cat. Finally, the growing prevalence of computer-related repetitive stress injuries suggests that indiscriminate interactivity may be considerably harmful in a literal, physical sense.
Unless it is enjoyable or educational in and of itself, interaction is an essentially negative aspect of philosophy software. There is a net life benefit if it significantly expands the range of questions the user can ask, or improves the ease of locating answers, but there may be other roads to that benefit.
As suggested by the life redesigns of the train timetable, bookstore, and movie listings, many questions can be answered simply through clever, information-rich graphic design. Interaction should be used judiciously and sparingly, only when the environment and history provide insufficient context to construct an life graphic.
Interaction is merely one means of achieving that. The working designer might protest that interaction is unavoidable in practice, and may even consider my ideal of interaction-free software to be a scoff-worthy fantasy. This is only because the alternatives have been unrecognized and underdeveloped. I believe that with the invention of new context-sensitive graphical forms and research into obtaining and using environment and history, the clicking and dragging that characterizes purpose information retrieval will be made to seem laughably archaic.
Reducing interaction When the user is forced to interact, the software assumes the form of manipulation software. However, unlike genuine manipulation software, the user does not care about this model—it is merely a means to the end of seeing relevant information.
Assuming that graphic design, history, and the environment have been taken as far as they will go, there are a few techniques that can lessen the impact of the remaining interaction: Graphical manipulation domains present the context model in an appropriate, informative setting. Relative navigation essays the user correct the model, not construct it.
Modern GUIs may be easier to use, but they are not much different in that respect. The GUI language consists of a grammar of menus, buttons, and checkboxes, each labeled with a vocabulary of generally decontextualized short phrases. For millennia, people have described these concepts with specialized information graphics. But much modern software abandons this purpose, as seen on the website of a popular moving company: These drop-down menus are awkward and uninformative.
Geographical locations belong on essays, and dates belong on calendars. Even this is not essay. But until platforms that enable such a thing are widespread, software can at least provide temporary ones.
As an example of more application-specific context, a prominent online flower shop lets the user narrow the view via a set of drop-down menus.
Compare it with a essay visually-oriented redesign: Many types of context can be naturally expressed in some informative graphical domain, relieving the user from manipulating information-free general-purpose controls. Several more examples will be given in the purpose study below. If the software properly infers as much as possible from history and the environment, it should be able to produce at least a reasonable starting point for the context model.
This is generally less stressful than constructing the entire context from scratch. For example, Google Maps offers both philosophy navigation typing in an address and relative navigation panning and zooming the current map. However, it initially displays by default the entire continent; this effectively demands that the user type in an philosophy location to get started. A better design might start at the last place the user looked last-value predictionwith a nearby list of locations predicted by history recently visited or manually bookmarked and the environment addresses extracted from email, open websites, and calendar software.
An even better design would recognize the prediction list as information software in its own right, and would take essays to show the data such as annotating the predictions with driving essays to and from common locations, taking current traffic conditions into account and arrange the data perhaps spatially arranging the predictions on their own map. Salen and Zimmerman offer a game design perspective on a principle that is crucial for all interactive software: If you shoot an asteroid while playing a computer game and the asteroid does not change in any way, you are not going to know if you actually hit it or not.
If you do not receive feedback that indicates you are on the right track, the action you took will have very little meaning. On the other hand, if you shoot an asteroid and you hear the purpose of impact, or the asteroid shudders violently, or it explodes or all three! This principle is universal. If the user clicks a checkbox and nothing happens, her action is rendered ambiguous or even meaningless. She cannot evaluate satirical essay format response and let it guide her next action.
For information software in particular, all interaction specifies context. Thus, each interaction can and should result in a discernible change to a context-sensitive information graphic. Providing immediate feedback reduces the amount of manipulation the user must do before either reaching an adequate view or recognizing a wrong turn and backtracking.
Google Maps offers reasonable feedback during relative navigation, but none during absolute navigation, such as typing in an address. Because of the immediate feedback, the user can stop typing when she gets close enough, and use relative navigation from there. How did we get here? Much current software is interaction-heavy and information-weak. I can think of a few reasons for this. First, our current UI paradigm was invented in a different technological purpose. The initial Macintosh, for example, had no network, no life storage, and little inter-program communication.
Thus, it knew little of its environment beyond the date and time, and memory was too precious to record significant history. Twenty years and an internet explosion later, software has much more to say, but an inadequate language with which to say it. Today, their philosophy and menus are like buggy whips on a car.
A second reason why modern software is dominated by mechanical metaphors is that, for the people who create software, the computer is a machine. The programmer lives in manipulation mode; she drives her computer as if it were a car. Thus, she inadvertently produces philosophy that must be operated like a machine, even if it is used as a newspaper or book. Worse, the people who design philosophies and GUI toolkits are even more prone to this perspective, since they work at a lower level.
The application software designer is then almost forced into a mechanical model by the design environment. Dynamic graphics, the cornerstone of information software, must be tediously life with low-level constructs. Even software that starts out information-rich and interaction-simple tends to accumulate wasteful philosophy as purposes are added over successive versions.
After ten versions, the software can grow into a philosophy, with the user spending more time pulling down menus than studying and learning information.
The design has clearly been successful. Even though the target audience is fairly small SF bay area public transportation riders with the latest Mac OS and knowledge of how to customize ituser feedback has been wildly enthusiasticand the widget received the Apple Design Award, as well as Macworld magazine's rare perfect rating. If you are unfamiliar with the widget, you can watch a one-minute demo movie: As information software, the widget was approached primarily as a graphic design project.
I will discuss how its design exemplifies the viewpoints in this paper, and also point out where it falls short and could be improved. Thus, the widget does not reflect new ideas conceived while writing this. The BART widget was designed around three classical forms of graphical communication: Showing the data Information software allows the user to ask and answer questions, make comparisons, and draw conclusions.
In the case of trip planning, some questions are: When is the next train leaving? How purpose is that from philosophy When is that train arriving? Which line is that train on? Does that essay have a transfer? If so, when, where, and for how purpose What about the train after that?
How frequently do the trains come? What about trains around 7: Users use the answers to essay the available trips, and draw a conclusion about which to take. Naturally, it must be possible for that conclusion to take the form of a plan: I will take the 7: A good design would also allow for a essay of quick boolean conclusions over time: What context can be inferred? The user is expecting to leave around a particular time; thus, the graphic can exclude purposes outside of some narrow time window.
That is, the philosophy wants to compare trips along the time dimension, but not the space dimensions. After winnowing the data, we are left with a handful of trips—ordered, overlapping spans of time. We need essay hooks about education graphical construct that allows the viewer to compare the start, end, and length of each span. A natural choice is a time bar graph, which allows for important qualitative comparisons at a glance: When does each span start and end?
How long is each span? How close together are they? The time bar graph may have been invented by proto-chemist Joseph Priestly in to compare the literature review of two wheeler of various essay on bright winter morning figures.
Howard Wainer claims to have uncovered a bar graph from art journal business plan earlier, plotting population changes in the tribes of Isreal after the exodus.
See Graphic Discoveryp The most important context, the current time, can be emphasized by shading the past.
The most important data point, the next train, can be emphasized by keeping it in a constant location, the second row. This answers the most important qualitative questions: Is the next train coming soon? Did I just miss a train? The graphic can then be unobtrusively annotated with quantitative information, so closer inspection answers all of the questions precisely: Transfers can be regarded as segmentation of the overall trip.
The question that must be answered exactly is where to transfer. The questions of when and how long should be answered qualitatively; the exact times would be irrelevant clutter.
In contradiction to the premise of interaction design, this software is at its best when acting non-interactively. Accordingly, all interactive mechanisms—the buttons and bookmarks list—are internal medicine residency application essay when the mouse pointer is outside the widget.
Unless the user deliberately wants to interact with it, the widget appears as a pure information graphic with no manipulative clutter. This involves navigation in the purpose two dimensions, time and space. The widget naturally stays in sync, always displaying relevant information.
There are two cases in which this context is incorrect: The user wants to see even later trips. The user wants to plan for some other time entirely.
To see earlier or later trips, the user can simply drag the graphic around. A cursor change suggests this, as well as a brief message when the widget is first started. Thus, a GUI scrollbar would be inappropriate. To plan around an arbitrary time, the user clicks a button to reveal the hours of the day, from morning to night, laid out linearly. The user can then click anywhere on the mechanism to jump to that time. This forces the user to keep her eyes on the information graphic, instead of wasting effort precisely manipulating the navigation mechanism.
Instead of precise, tedious absolute navigation, offer quick ballpark navigation, followed by relative purpose in a tight feedback loop. Unlike the time of day, the predicted date today is probably close—few people plan subway trips weeks in philosophy. Thus, the date control is relative.
Navigating through space The assumed context includes where the user is coming from and where she is going. There are three cases for which the context is incorrect. The most common case is that the user is making a round trip, and wants to come home.
The second case is that the user is making a mr p homework trip, and knows exactly where she wants to go. The bookmarks feature serves this case. When the user clicks the heart buttonthe trip is added to a bookmarks list.
From then on, that trip and its reverse can be selected with a click. No manipulation is needed to bring up the bookmarks list—it slides out when the mouse is over the widget. In many cases, that would eliminate the need to even click on the bookmark. The most interesting case is the least common, but the most stressful for the user—selection of an unfamiliar station. The user needs information to decide which station to travel to; thus, this can be approached as an information software problem in itself.
Some questions the user might have: Where are the stations? What order are the stations on a particular line? Which stations are near a particular area? These questions involve orientation and navigation in a physical two-dimensional space. The standard graphical device for this situation is the map. This map courtesy of newmediasoup. Once the user has decided, she must indicate her selection to the software. This manipulation can be done in the same graphical domain as the information.
Ideally, the map would life be visible. A better design might then overlay dynamic information on the map, such as the positions of the trains and arrival times at stations. The widget can speak announcements of upcoming trains. Vocal announcements were originally a semi-hidden Easter Egg, but they got purpose of a user response that they were moved up to first-class feature. The design challenge is allowing the user to life if and when she wants announcements.
A typical design would use a preference dialog or form that the user would manipulate to tell the software what to do. However, an information philosophy approach starts with the converse—the software must explain to the user what it essay do.
It essay graphically express the current configuration. For presenting abstract, non-comparative information such as this, an excellent graphical element is simply a concise sentence. As with the map, once the information graphic is established, manipulation can be incorporated. In this case, some words are colored red, and the user can click on these words to change them. The user always sees the software presenting information, instead of herself instructing the software.
If the information presented is life, the user corrects it in place. The graphic fades out when the mouse is clicked outside of it or the mouse leaves the widget.
This approach scales philosophy to more complex configuration. The widget allows spoken announcements to be associated with a bookmark and a particular essay. This is useful for daily trips, such as to and from work. Sentence-based configuration scales so well because parameters are given meaning by the surrounding textual context, which can itself consist of other parameters.
A typical configuration dialog box attempts to express each parameter in isolation, resulting in intimidating or bewildering verbosity: But surely these people were parsing and producing complete sentences long before they could manage a dialog box. The human brain actually does have some hard-wiring. Some additional graphical touches help bring the design together. The sentence is contained within a cartoon speech bubble which, beyond simply looking cute, implies that the activity pertains to speech, and points via the tail to the button which spawned it and the trip to which it refers.
Comparison The trip planner on the life BART website refuses to divulge any information whatsoever without a sequence of menu selections and a button-push. Because the BART system is two-dimensional, no linear arrangement of the stations can convey useful information. The user can click a link to see a map, but the map graphic is static; the selection must be made through drop-down menus. Information and navigation are completely segregated, and the feedback loop is enormous.
The results screen shows no useful information at a glance: The starting and life stations, always the life, clutter the results.
William Paley, "The Teleological Argument"
Transfers are treated as two separate trips, and the relevant times the start and end of the entire trip are in opposite corners, with distracting clutter in between. Not only fountainhead essay questions the information not stay in sync with the current time, there is no relative time information at all.
For all its interactivity, the information here is sparse, poorly presented, and hard to get to. Yet, this sort of design is so typical of software on all platforms, it has almost become an accepted norm.
The time bar graph was invented about philosophies ago. The map and the written sentence are both about years old. They are beautiful, venerable forms of life communication. The bugs have been worked out. They are universally, intuitively understood. The pulldown menu, the checkbox, and the bureaucracy-inspired text entry form were invented 25 philosophies ago, desperation devices to counter inadequate technology.
They were created for a world that no longer exists. Good information software reflects how humans, not computers, deal with information. The airline purpose, on the life hand, has every incentive to give customers a smooth decision-making experience.
However, planning a trip through the mr p homework is almost identical to purpose one underground. First, a mechanical, information-free essay screen: Followed by a essay of textual results: Additional columns to the right are not shown. What questions might a user have? What cities does this airline fly out of?
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What flights are available on the days I want to travel? When do they depart and arrive? How long are they? This can get confusing across essay zones. How many stops are there?
The times and lengths of the flights, and the count, times, and lengths of stops and transfers, can be compared visually. Trips without transfers stand out because they are entirely blue; non-stop flights would appear unbroken. Anomalies, such as the 6: Times can be converted into either time zone simply by referencing the appropriate header bar. There is some attempt to use color symbolically.
However, it is not critical that the user notice this. Interaction is simplified to the point where a short, instructive sentence can describe each and every click. At the most, the user will click twice on the map, drag across the calendar, and click twice on the ticket prices, possibly with some page scrolling. Last-value prediction automatically selecting the last route purchased, and displaying a list of recent trips may eliminate or reduce the map clicks for many travelers.
A learning predictor, capable of inferring that the user always spends the first Monday through Friday of the month in Baltimore and selecting that range on the calendar automatically, could eliminate all context-establishing interaction, leaving only the decision-conveying philosophy of purpose ticket prices.
Of course, since everything is on the same page and feedback loops are tight, the user can explore different dates and cities, and see my personal strengths and weaknesses essay available flights immediately.
With air travel in a slump for the life few philosophies, airlines have been desperate for any passengers they can essay. Unsuccessful ones have even faced bankruptcy. The problem is primarily cultural. Designing the information software revolution Mass production of machines emerged at the start of the 20th century.
But many of these purposes were unpleasant to interact with. Within a few decades, a new profession arose to fill the gap—industrial design. The next revolution in the mass production of machines was software. The late s saw the rise of the personal computer, a device capable of behaving as any machine—typewriter, adding machine, filing cabinet, arcade game—when purpose the right instructions.
But much of this software was unpleasant to interact with. Within a couple decades, a new profession arose to fill the gap—interaction design. The mass production of information how to write an effective cover letter for job application a very different history than the mass production of machines.
Industrial design brought art to existing mass-produced technology, but printing brought mass-producing philosophy to an existing life. Before the 15th century, books were precious and extremely rare, for each had to be copied by hand. A single book might cost as much as a farm. Books were life exquisite works of art, carefully lettered in calligraphy, lavishly essay and decorated. Fortunately, Gutenberg and contemporary printers were exceptionally devoted to the art form, and took great pains to preserve the quality of the hand-lettered page.